Int J Comput Dent 19 (2016), No. 4 26. Dec. 2016
Int J Comput Dent 19 (2016), No. 4 (26.12.2016)
Page 301-321, PubMed:28008428, Language: English/German
Materials and scaffolds in medical 3D printing and bioprinting in the context of bone regeneration
Heller, Martin / Bauer, Heide-Katharina / Goetze, Elisabeth / Gielisch, Matthias / Ozbolat, Ibrahim T. / Moncal, Kazim K. / Rizk, Elias / Seitz, Hermann / Gelinsky, Michael / Schröder, Heinz C. / Wang, Xiaohong H. / Müller, Werner E. G. / Al-Nawas, Bilal
The structural and functional repair of lost bone is still one of the biggest challenges in regenerative medicine. In many cases, autologous bone is used for the reconstruction of bone tissue; however, the availability of autologous material is limited, which always means additional stress to the patient. Due to this, more and more frequently various biocompatible materials are being used instead for bone augmentation. In this context, in order to ensure the structural function of the bone, scaffolds are implanted and fixed into the bone defect, depending on the medical indication. Nevertheless, for the surgeon, every individual clinical condition in which standardized scaffolds have to be aligned is challenging, and in many cases the alignment is not possible without limitations. Therefore, in the last decades, 3D printing (3DP) or additive manufacturing (AM) of scaffolds has become one of the most innovative approaches in surgery to individualize and improve the treatment of patients. Numerous biocompatible materials are available for 3DP, and various printing techniques can be applied, depending on the process conditions of these materials. Besides these conventional printing techniques, another promising approach in the context of medical AM is 3D bioprinting, a technique which makes it possible to print human cells embedded in special carrier substances to generate functional tissues. Even the direct printing into bone defects or lesions becomes possible. 3DP is already improving the treatment of patients, and has the potential to revolutionize regenerative medicine in future.
Keywords: 3D printing (3DP), additive manufacturing (AM), bioprinting, bone regeneration, regenerative medicine, scaffolds, biocompatible materials